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About Ideologies

Актуализирано: 18.04.2020 г.

The new book by Gavrail Panchev - a collected articles "Beyond Reality and Utopia" examines several fundamental ideologies.

Here are some excerpts from the book on the different ideologies: Conservatism (Excerpt from the article "Conservatism: Yesterday and Today," p. 66) Conservative ideology emerged at the end of the eighteenth century in Britain. This fact is essential because for two centuries (XVIII-XIX) Britain was the arbiter in the relations between the Great Powers in Europe (see Kissinger. Diplomacy), which - with the exception of France - are monarchies and with anti-revolutionary foreign and domestic policies. Britain is the guarantor of the balance of power between the leading countries in Europe, which means that neither of them should have dominated the others. The consensus is the consequence of the dangerous combination of Cardinal Richelieu's political conception of "rezon d`etat" and the revolutionary ideas of 1789, which made France an empire under Napoleon I, and this seriously threatened the balance in Europe. The father of conservatism is the astute Scottish philosopher Edmund Burke, who developed the doctrine as an alternative to the French Revolution of 1789, because the latter begins with human rights and ends with terror, terror which questions the very existence of the French state. He writes from the position of the Glorious English Revolution of 1688, which underlies the link between traditional authority and law ... Liberalism (Excerpt from the article "Liberalism: Between Yesterday and Today," p. 72) Liberalism is a political conception of personality (see John Rawls. Political Liberalism. 1999), from which it does not follow that it is genealogically linked to Christian religion because it places at the center of its value system the man, free from transcendental, historical and social determinants, unlike Christianity which binds man ethically to the will of God, and hence to the opposition "good - evil" - by comparison: Christian conservative Berdyaev defends the hypothesis that man is a 'half', that is, he is immanently directed to the search of the other 'half'. - and he finds her in love and family, called by Christians the "little church." Liberalism substantiates the personality: Hence, Tzvetan Todorov begins his critical knowledge of the liberal "family", as he calls the basic ideologies, to argue that the self-sufficient individual's philosophy logically culminates in the politics of "tyranny of the individuals" (see Todorov. Intimate Enemies of Democracy. S. 2013). ... Nationalism (Excerpt from the article "Nationalism: Yesterday Tomorrow," p. 80) Nationalism is a nineteenth-century ideology: the term was invented at the end of the century. G. Gellner's definition is a solid start for thought given the sharp increase in nationalisms - nationalism, as I will show below, is not a homogeneous doctrine - today, while explaining the grandeur and failure of its nineteenth-century Bulgarian form, which is meaningful. directed at an independent nation-state, but formally dependent on the Great Powers and one of them in particular: “Nationalism is first and foremost a political principle according to which the political and national units must coincide. Nationalism as a feeling or as a movement can be defined in terms of this principle. The nationalistic feeling (a.k.a.) is the sense of anger that arises when a principle is violated, or the sense of satisfaction in its observance.    Communism (Excerpt from the article "Communism: Yesterday in Today," p. 84) ... in the West communism is a theory, in Russia a dogma with totalitarian genealogy. N. Berdyaev's insight must be followed and supplemented. After World War II, revolutionary communism became a political practice in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, which broke the cultural life of the nations in these statistic structures in two halves. In the West, communism remained a theory; of course, it is complicated, probably has a serious knowledge of the subject, but it is not correlated with the experience and this makes it different from the epistemic searches in the other two parts of the Old Continent. More about the book here


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